This page was last edited by - acetone acetone on Jun 2, 2009 5:35 pm (GMT). (56 total edits)


Instructions | Introduction | Bacteria | Protists | Fungi | Plants | Animals


Kingdom Animalia



Post all of your information on animals here. Please post it in the appropriate section and monitor format deficiencies for your section.

Phylum
  • Class*
Porifera
Cnidaria
Plathyhelminthes
Mollusca
  1. Gastropoda
  2. Bivalvia
  3. Cephalopoda
Annelida
Arthropoda
  1. Chelicerata
  2. Crustacea
  3. Insecta
Echinodermata
Chordata
  1. Osteichthyes
  2. Amphibia
*only when specified



(back to top)

Porifera


Name: Sponge

Evolution: Domain Eukaryota, Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Porifera

Energy Transfer: Sponges do not have a digestive system. (Mader) They filter water through their cells and capture food particles and it is engulfed by ostia and pinacocytes through phagocytosis. Some sponges prey on crustaceans where the water does not have sufficient food supply. (Wikipedia)

Continuity and Change: Sponges have a few ways to reproduce asexually. They bud. Also when chip of the adult sponge is fallen it can grow in to a whole new sponge. (Mader) Sponges reproduce sexually as well. Usually sponges are hermaphrodites. Sperm is produced by the choanocytes and eggs are produced by the archocytes. When time is right they release them in the water and eggs become fertilized in the water.

Relationship of Structure to Function: Sponges have spicules that they shed, forming a bed of spines that keep away predators. (wikipedia)

Regulation: Sponges have no true tissues or organs. They filter water through osmosis and cells absorb and release the water.

Interdependence in Nature: Some sponges have a particular interdependence with the sea grass. The sponge lets the seagrass grow on them. Since seagrass is unfavorable to the fish, it keeps fishes away thus protecting the sponge. Many sponges are a habitat to some crustaceans such as shrimps. (Wikipedia)

Science, Technology, and Society: Sponges produce a chemical that has an anti-inflammatory, anti-biotic, and anti-tumoral affect. The Chemical is used to make prescription medicines. The endoskeleton of some sponges are used as washing divices such as, bath sponges. (BQA)

Work Cited: Biology book
Wikipedia
Biology Questions and Answers (http://www.biology-questions-and-answers.com/porifera.html)

Sketch:
lab_notebook-Imin-sponge.png
by ImIn



(back to top)

Cnidaria


Name: Hydra

Evolution: Phylum Cnidaria, Class Hydrozoa.

Energy Transfer: The inner tissue layer of a cnidarian releases digestive juices into the gastrovascular cavity. This is where the digestion of food happens and it also circulates nutrients. To catch prey, Cnidarians have those stinging tentacles that, when touched, paralyze the prey immediately.

Continuity and Change: Cnidarians can reproduce through fertilization as well as asexual budding.

Relationship of Structure to Function: Cnidarians are tube shaped or bell shaped. Their two body forms are a polyp and a medusa. In some cases, both body types are present and it is called a dimorphic.

Regulation: Cnidarians do not have a centralized nervous system. Instead, they have a nerve net composed of multiple nerve cells.

Interdependence in Nature:

Science, Technology, and Society: Cnidarians can be potentally harmful when they come in contact with humans. The stinging tentacles shut down the nervous systems of smaller prey, but humans are much larger and the stingers will not shut down a larger system. Although, some have shown to have cused some serious damage to humans.

Sketch:
lab_notebook-Imin-hydrozoan.png
by ImIn



(back to top)

Plathyhelminthes


Name:

Evolution:

Energy Transfer:

Continuity and Change:

Relationship of Structure to Function:

Regulation:

Interdependence in Nature:

Science, Technology, and Society:

Sketch:
lab_notebook-Imin-planarian.png
by ImIn



(back to top)

Mollusca



1. Gastropoda

Name: Snail

Evolution: Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Mollusca, Class Gastropoda

Energy Transfer: While many gastropods are herbivores, meaning they feed on plants, others can be scavengers or carnivors, even eating another mollusc. One of these carnivorous molluscs are known as cone shells; these gastropods can attack its prey by delivering a sting so lethal on the animal that even humans can suffer greatly from it.

Continuity and Change: All land snails are hermaphroditic, meaning they have both male and female reproductive parts. This feature of being hermaphroditic is an adaptation that these animals have aquired by being on land. It is especially beneficial in these animals due to the fact that they are slow moving and roam over a wide range; that way, whenever two snails meet, they can mate and reproduce. Before the actual mating occurs, the two snails shoot calcareous darts into the other's body. After this step, each mollusc inserts a penis into the others vagina to fertilize the eggs with their sperm. The fertilized eggs are then deposited in the soil and the developement of land snails proceeds without forming larvae unlike aquatic gastropods who's offspring start off as swimming larvae.

Relationship of Structure to Function:

Regulation:

Interdependence in Nature: N/A

Science, Technology, and Society: In many parts of the world, including France, snails are considered a delicacy for many meal options although reasons why are simply uncomprehendable. Instead of saying snails, however, they are given the title escargo which admittedly sounds like a more pleasurable meal if you do not know what it is.

Sketch:

lab_notebook-Imin-snail.png
by ImIn


2. Bivalvia

Name: Clam

Evolution: Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Mollusca, Class Bivalvia

Energy Transfer: Bivalves are mainly filter feeders, which also means that their general behavior is sessile, relatively immobile, in nature. Water that is pumped in through the incurrent siphon, carries with it not only the vital oxygen for the gills but also nutrient particles, whether detritus or small microbes. These particles are swept by means of ciliary motion towards the internal mouth of the clam. The digestive tract is quite developed, containing even a specialized organ called the digestive gland for the catabolism of complex organic molecules (Mader 541). Waste particles exit internally by way of the anus, which lies adjacent to the excurrent siphon, the valve that expels accumlated waste and filtered water from within the shell. The central digestive tract is relatively short, consisting of a crop, stomach, caecum, and small intestine. Most digestion actually occurs through accesory processes of the connected digestive glad ("liver") and toxic juices secreted at the salivary glands within the mouth (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cephalopod).

Continuity and Change: Sexes are usually separated in bivalves, meaning there are male and female individuals within a population. Sexual reproduction produces an immature form within the female carrier called trocophore larvae. These develop within the clam and are then released; some forms exist as parasites on other marine life before maturing into the sessile clam (541). This type of sexual reproduction produces variety in the gene pool. Also, the resource partitioning of juveniles and adults may be a factor in successful perliforation in an environment. Most of the offspring produced will not survive to maturity, but reproduction occurs in large numbers to compensate (they are r-selected). Asexual reproduction does not occur.

Relationship of Structure to Function: Bivalves live an internal existence. The outer layer, called the mantle, secretes a calcium carbonate and protein cell that houses the visceral mass and foot and all the organs entailed. The shell is divided into two halves, which are hinged at a focal point and whose movement correlates with the action of strong hinge muscles (540). Within the shell and mantle lies the visceral mass, composed of rather advanced organ systems. The digestive tract is complete and includes a digestive gland for catabolism, and it actually passes through the heart itself, though bivalves lack the toothed, tongue-like organ (for breaking up nutrients) characteristic of some molluscs. The open circulatory system bathes tissues in hemolyph (blood), which, due to the substitution of hemocyanin for hemoglobin, is blue. The blood circulates and pools within sinuses, collectively called the hemocoel. The two kidneys are paired and excrete ammonia as a nitrogenous waste into the pericardial cavity, the reduced coelem that houses the heart, from which it is expelled via the excurrent siphon (540-541). Reproductive organs are either male or female (separated) for an individual. Despite this relatively advanced organ network, bivalves show little to no cephalization: the nervous system is composed of the mollusc-typical three ganglia (anterior, posterior, and within the foot), connected by simple nerve chords (541). This can be attributed to the to the bivalve's lifestyle of relative lack of motion and the filter-feeding consumption method. While regulation and nutrient use in the marine environment warrant digestive and excretory complexity, a general lack of predation or foraging or prey behaviors makes sensory development unnecessary. Bivalves show show variation in lifestyle when it comes to the use of the muscular foot. Depending on the task at hand (pun!!! ahhh), the foot may be adapted in shape and secondary features. For instance, the clam uses its foot like a shovel for burrowing, while the mussel opts to construct wire-like threads that allow it to anchor itself to an adjacent sunstrate. Both put the bivalve into optimal filter-feeding conditions. Locomotion may also have its place in the bivalve class; scallops use the force of forcing water out of their shells to propel themselves "backwards" in short spurts (540).

Regulation: As aforementioned, Bivalves posses a relatively well-developed visceral mass, containing most regulatory organ systems. The open circulatory system, hydraulically pressure-pumped by the heart, circulates nutrients by bathing tissues and also carries oxygen to gills by way of the circulatory pigment, hemocyanin (541). Paired kidneys regulate water and solute concentrations, as well as the pH conditions entailed. This is of especial importance in marine environments because the expulsion of excess salt in an unregulated setting would pose challenges to water retention for the organism. The incurrent and excurrent siphons are the gateways in and out of the clams internal, soft body (541). They regulate how much water, nutrients, and waste enter and exit the coelem and mantle cavity. The foot could even be considered an agent of regulation since it is generally the only locomotive tool available; a basic regulation of location, whereby the clam has access to food from currents and detritus from other organisms, is fundamental for the sessile filter-feeder. All these are controlled by the three ganglion in the anterior and posterior ends and in the foot. Though external sensory capacities are limited due to the lack of cephalization, bivalves are known to possess photosensitive and . Lastly, the surrounding of foreign bodies with shell layers prevents irritation and abrasion to internal tissues (541).

Interdependence in Nature: Bivalves, as filter-feeders, generally dine on the lower trophic levels of phyto- and zoo-plankton. They may also consume nutrient particles in the form of detritus. In the trochophore larval stage, bivalves may form parasitic relationships with other marine life before "settling down" into their mature, sessile state (541). With separate sexes and no asexual reproduction, bivalves quite obviously depend on one another. Molluscs in general, due to their immense diversity, occupy several different trophic levels in ecosystems and thus both sustain and regulate these depending on their lifestyle. In general, bivalves probably sustain more than regulate.

Science, Technology, and Society: Clams are often eaten as a seafood dish and their shells are collected casually by almost everyone who has ever been to the beach. Economically, they can be of value for their particular method of dealing with foreign bodies within the mantle cavity. The inner layer of mantle, mother of pearl, secretes concentric shell layers around a foreign body (e.g., a grain of sand). The finished product, though originally made out of necessity, is highly valued as an article of jewelry (http://www.biology-questions-and-answers.com/mollusca.html). Otherwise, they can be of ecological importance because they hyper-concentrate any nutrients found in lower trophic levels that they consume (i.e., plankton). Thus a poison in minute concentrations per individual for the plankton may be exponentially more concentrated in bivalve and furthermore human individuals; an example is the ecological fallout that occurs after a dinoflagellate bloom, called "red tide" (Mader 358).

Works Cited: Biology Textbook (Mader)
Biology Questions and Answers (http://www.biology-questions-and-answers.com/mollusca.html)

Sketch:
lab_notebook-Imin-clam.png
by ImIn



3. Cephalopoda

Name: Squid

Evolution: Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Mollusca, Class Cephalopoda

Energy Transfer: Cephalopods, some of whose members are the largest within the phylum (e.g., the giant squid, which can be up to 20 m or more in length), are predatory heterotrophs. They generally occupy the higher trophic levels within an ecosystem as one of the top carnivores. They are adapted to this predatory role with high brain and sensory development, large size, muscular fluidity and efficiency, and tool-like appendages which serve to capture and dispatch prey.

Continuity and Change: All molluscs reproduce sexually. This promotes a natural diversity in the gene pool through genetic recombination in meiosis, haploid gametes, diploid zygotes, and fertilization possibilities. The sexes are separated between individuals (there are specific males and females) Fertilization is accomplished when the male transfers his spermatophores, packets that contain sperm, to the female with a tentacle specialized for this task. The developing embryos are encased in eggs and fastened in strands of up to one-hundred eggs that hang off of the substratum of the mother (Mader 542). Offspring are produced in bulk, and individuals that hatch are independent and fend for themselves, often ending in premature death of many of the young; this designates them as an r-selected class. No asexual reproduction occurs.

Relationship of Structure to Function: The cephalopod lifestyle varies greatly from the largely herbivorous snail and the filter-feeding clam. The squid, for example, is a highly active predator that fills one of the top trophic levels in many marine ecosystems. With the exception of the nautilus, most cephalopods have a reduced shell. The squid's shell, called the "pen" for its characteristic shape, is internal, lying underneath a muscular mantle and surrounding the visceral mass, and it serves as a vestigial, internal skeleton (542). Besides this, cephalopods exhibit a high level of cephalization along with sensory development that includes two camera-like eyes. The brain is a well-developed fusion of the characteristic three ganglia, and it is well supported by a peripheral nerve network that allows deterity for squid movement. Along with a complex and responsive muscular system, cephalopods can move with great agility by jet propulsion when they force water out from the mantle cavity through a directable funnel in their anterior end. Tentacles are specialized appendages that often have "sucker" structures and/or tissues that secrete adhesives--all to the end of effectively capturing prey. A parrot-like beak near the mouth is used for ripping and tearing prey into ingestible chunks. The digestive tract is complete, with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. The circulatory system is closed, meaning the hemolymph (blood) is always encased within a vessel network. The blood is pumped by three separate hearts: one to supply the internal organs and two that lie in the mantle that supply blood to the gills. The respitory system thus resembles that of the clam, with gills, and the closed circulatory system is the transporting agent for the oxygen is extracts from the water by cilliary motion. If squids and octopi ever find themselve to be selected as prey rather than predator, they may issue ink from specialized sacs; this tactic confuses the attacker so that the squids octopi to make a speedy, unhindered escape (542).

Regulation: The highly-developed nervous system is a key characteristic of cephalopods. It allows great monitoring and response control for internal and external stimuli and processes. Buoyancy can be a big issue for cephalopods because in marine environments they would naturally tend to float due to their absorption of sea-water. Some solve this problem by regulating the amount of pure water and solutes within their bodies through the nephridia of their paired kidneys. Others even have special pouches where oils are stored. Some cephalopods posses chromatophores, colored pigments that can be displayed selectively through muscular expansion for camouflage, while still others harness bioluminescence to disguise themselve among shadow and light in the murky depths. This attention to the visual world permeates the character of cephalopods: they have keen vision and communicate through visual signals, including light displays for those that possess bioluminescent qualities (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cephalopod).

Interdependence in Nature: Besides filling the roles of being near-top predators in many marine biomes, cephalopods possess intimate relationships with the relative bottom species of the food chain. For instance, some of the toxic digestive secretions in the mouth are produced by algae that live within the salivary glands in symbiosis with the squid. Also, bioluminescence may be caused by the external sources taken into the body cavities (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cephalopod). For instance bioluminescent bacteria may fill mantle cavities, which are rich with nutrients, and these bacteria in return provide light that the squid may use for its own purposes.

Science, Technology, and Society: Octopi and Squid are commercially consumed, usually in restaurants as "calamari" and in local cuisine. Furthermore, cephalopods have captured the imagination of seafarers for centuries. This includes the horror stories of such beasts as giant squids and the mythical Kraken. Cephalopods continue to be the stuff of legend, since many species have yet to be identified or even discovered. Many of these inhibit the murky depths of uncharted ocean waters.

Works Cited: Biology Textbook (Mader)
Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cephalopod)


Sketch:
lab_notebook-Imin-squid.png
by ImIn



(back to top)

Annelida


Name: Segmented Worms (Earthworm)

Evolution: Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Annelida, Class Oligochaeta

Energy Transfer: Annelids in general are heterotrophs, meaning that they cannot produce their own food through photosynthesis; therefore, they must obtain their food by other means. Some annelids are predators and others are sessile filter feeders. "Segmentation and the tube-within-a-tube body plan have led to increased specialization of the digestive tract in annelids" (Mader 544). Their digestive system may include a pharynx, a stomach, and accessory glands. Earthworms in particular feed on leaves and on any other organic matter; food is taken in through the mouth and wastes are eliminated through the anus.

Continuity and Change: Annelids can reproduce sexually and asexually as well. Some annelids, specifically earthworms, are hermaphroditic. This means that they have both male and female reproductive organs.The male organs include the testes, sperm ducts, and seminal vesicles; as for the female organs, they include ovaries, oviducts, and seminal receptacles. Polychaetes on the other hand, develop sex organs only during their breeding seasons. Some of these organisms shed a part of their body containing sperm or eggs, which then float to the surface. This allows fertilization to take place. The zygote produced then develops into a larva.

Relationship of Structure to Function: Annelids are different from the other phylums due to their unique body plans. The earthworm's segmentation proves to be an important characteristic of its body, as it allows it to move around rather easily. There are "ganglionic swellings and lateral nerves in each segment" (Pg. 545). Some annelids have setae, which are "bristles that anchor the worm or help it move" (Pg. 544). That aids in the locomotion of the organism, allowing it to move towards food and adequate shelter. In addition, annelids have muscular aortic arches that serve to propel blood through the vessels; these are known as "hearts".

Regulation: Annelids such as earthworms live in soil; it is here where they find enough moisture to keep their body walls moist, which is necessary for gas exchange. A large portion of annelids live in the marine environment, however, they can also live on land. The nervous system in these organisms consist of a brain which is connected to a solid nerve cord; there is a ganglion in every segment of the annelid's body. Cephalization is apparent in some annelids; however, eyespots are more commonly seen in them.

Interdependence in Nature: Earthworms eat decomposing organic material. Plants and trees, in turn, benefit greatly from the wastes these earthworms leave behind due to all the nutrients it contains. Some organisms, including humans, benefit from the bloodsucking of leeches. While they are busy feeding, leeches are also helping the organism with a wound; they help prevent blood from clotting. This is considered a mutualistic type of relationship.

Science, Technology, and Society: As previously mentioned, leeches have been of great importance in medicine for many centuries. Medicinal leeches have the ability to cut through tissue and keep blood flowing. A substance in their saliva called hirudin has been known to be a powerful anticoagulant; a substance that prevents bloodclotting, in other words. They have been used in numerous procedures throughout the years, including reconstructive surgery (Pg. 546).

Works Cited:
Biology Book (Mader)

Sketch:
lab_notebook-Imin-earthworm.png
by ImIn



(back to top)

Arthropoda



1. Chelicerata

Name:Tarantula

Evolution: Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Arthropoda, Class Chelicerata, Order Araneae http://www.catalogueoflife.com/browse_taxa.php?path=0,1,134,135,136&selected_taxon=136

Energy Transfer: All chelicerata are heterotrophic. They contain both carnivores and herbivores. They often use their first two pairs of appendages to help them feed. Their guts are generally so small that they must liquefy their food. They grid it up in their second pair of appendages and then flood it with various digestive enzymes. The leftovers are then taken out of the blood by the malphigian tubules which then excrete it as solid waste.

Continuity and Change: All of chelicerata has separate sexes. They reproduce, like all other animals, by the formation of gametes by meiosis. They also have internal fertilization, with the exception of marine horseshoe crabs, and the young are born in non-amniotic eggs.

Relationship of Structure to Function: Class chelicerata is distinguishable from any other class of arthropoda by the fact that they have eight appendages, none of which are attached to their heads. (Madder)

Regulation: All of chelicerata is motile. The chelicerata nervous system is typically composed of two nerve cords, each of them having one ganglion, a collection of neurons, per body segment. They also have a brain which is formed by the fusion of the two nerve cords. They all require some amount of oxygen.

Interdependence in Nature: Spiders are often involved in parasitism there are a few types of insects that lay their eggs on the spiders and when the young hatch they eat the spider.

Science, Technology, and Society: There are two venomous spiders in the United States that can hard people brown recluse and the black widow. The venom of which is, along with that of some scorpions, being researched as a potential cure to a broad number of medical problems.

Sketch:



2. Crustacea

Name: Crayfish

Evolution: Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Arthropoda, Class Crustacea, Order Decapoda [[httm:www.catalogueoflife.com/browse_taxa.php?path=0,1,134,939,965,1001,1016,62456&selected_taxon=62456]]
Energy Transfer: All Crustaceans are heterotrophs. Crayfish specifically are carnivores. They ingest their food through the mouth which travels through the esophagus to their stomach. Their stomach has two sections the first part, the gastric mill, grinds the food with the chitinous teeth imbedded in the stomach. http://www.coolschool.ca/lor/BI11/unit13/U13L02.htm The next part filters out all of the food particles. The rest of it goes through the anus and out the rectum.

Continuity and Change: All crustaceans have separate sexes. They reproduce, like all other animals, by the formation of gametes by meiosis. They also have internal fertilization and the young are born in non-amniotic eggs.

Relationship of Structure to Function: Crustaceans have paddle-like swimmerets on their abdomen which are used to assist in their movement and in reproduction. http://www.coolschool.ca/lor/BI11/unit13/U13L02.htm

Regulation: Definitely motile. All crustaceans have a brain, a ventral solid nerve chord, and any where from eight to nineteen lateral nerves that function as their nervous system. Most of these organisms require water and spend their entire life in it, and some amount of oxygen. http://www.coolschool.ca/lor/BI11/unit13/U13L02.htm

Interdependence in Nature: Aphanomyces astaci, a water mold, is a parasite of all crayfish species everywhere. This relationship eventually causes the death of the crayfish.

Science, Technology, and Society: We eat them.

Sketch:
lab_notebook-Imin-daphnia.png
by ImIn



3. Insecta

Name: Grasshopper

Evolution: Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Orthoptera http://www.catalogueoflife.com/browse_taxa.php?path=0,1,134,311,580&selected_taxon=580

Energy Transfer: All insects are heterotrophic. The digestion process for all insects begins in the mouth, many of which are quite unique. From there the food goes to the crop where it is stored. After that it goes to the Gastric Mill where food is mechanically broken down and then to the stomach where the food is chemically broken down. Surrounding these organ is the gastric cecum which actually absorbs the nutrients. There are also malpighian tubules surrounding the intestine that collect nitrogenous waste from blood. This waste is then converted to uric acid, which then passes out the hindgut. http://www.coolschool.ca/lor/BI11/unit13/U13L03.htm

Continuity and Change: Most insects have separate sexes. They reproduce, like all other animals, by the formation of gametes by meiosis. They also have internal fertilization and the young are born in non-amniotic eggs.

Relationship of Structure to Function: Class insecta has a unique structure called Johnston's organ. It functions as a sensory organ and is located in the second segment of the antenna. http://tolweb.org/Insecta

Regulation: All insects are motile. They all have a brain and a ventral nerve cord. Their brain consists of three pairs of ganglia, a collection of neurons. With each pair of ganglia per segment to coordinate that segments activities. http://www.earthlife.net/insects/anato my.html Grasshoppers specifically have, on the side of the first abdominal segment, a tympanum which receives sound waves. Book

Interdependence in Nature: Insects are often involved in parasitism, like the mosquito.

Science, Technology, and Society: The parasitic insects often carry diseases that affect humans, like malaria.

Sketch:
lab_notebook-Imin-grasshopper.png
by ImIn
lab_notebook-Imin-butterfly.png
by ImIn


(back to top)

Echinodermata


Name: Sea star

Evolution: Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Echinodermata, Subphylum Asterozoa, Class Asteroidea

Energy Transfer: Sea stars are heterotrophic, but the mode of feeding varies widely between echinoderms. Most sea stars are hunters, "attacking other starfish or shellfish" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echinodermata). They use their tube feet to catch the prey and then stiffen their legs to keep it in place. When the sea star is ready to begin digestion, its stomach can be turned inside out to engulf and digest the organism. When it is brought back inside the body, the prey moves to the pyloric stomach (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starfish). "Further digestion occurs in the intestine", and waste is excreted through the anus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starfish).

Continuity and Change: Sea stars and echinoderms generally reproduce externally by releasing gametes (sperm and eggs) into the ocean. Sea stars have male and female sexes and are deuterostomes. In all echinoderms, the embryo initially develops bilateral symmetry, indicating common ancestry with chordates. They are also known to regenerate lost arms, and the arms can produce new sea stars. They can reproduce in this manner (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starfish).

Relationship of Structure to Function: The ability of a sea stars to evert its stomach allows it to catch food that would be too big for its mouth. The spiny outer surface protects echinoderms from predators. Tube feet, which operate through hydraulic pressure, function in locomotion and in feeding in echinoderms (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tube_feet).

Regulation: Echinoderms have a radial nervous system "that consists of a modified nerve net — interconnected neurons with no central brain" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echinodermata). These nerves which go from the central rings to each arm coordinate movement.

Interdependence in Nature: Echinoderms play many ecological roles. Some "prevent the growth of algal mats on coral reefs, which would obstruct the filter-feeding constituent organisms." Others can "can bore into solid rock," allowing the release of nutrients into the ocean. Still others "provide a habitat for parasites, including crabs, worms and snails. The extinction of large quantities of echinoderms appears to have caused a subsequent overrunning of ecosystems by seaweed, or the destruction of an entire reef" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echinodermata}.

Science, Technology, and Society: Many echinoderms are considered delicacies, consisting of significant parts of several countries' economies.

Sketch:
lab_notebook-Imin-starfish.png
by ImIn


(back to top)

Chordata


1. Osteichthyes

Name: Bony fish

Evolution: Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Chordata, Superclass Osteichthyes, Class Actinopterygii

Energy Transfer: Perch are heterotrophic, and eat smaller, ocean-dwelling organisms. Food enters through the mouth, and then goes to the esophagus, which is a tube leading to the stomach. The stomach breaks down the food by mechanical and chemical means. Then the food enters the intestine, which is shorter than the length of the perch's body. This is because less digestion is needed for carnivores. The liver produces bile, necessary for the digestion of fats. The pancreas also releases digestive enzymes (http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/lb8pg3.htm) .

Continuity and Change: Fertilization usually occurs externally, and there is usually no parental care after birth.

Relationship of Structure to Function: The hard external scales give the fish protection. Their fins have a large surface area, allowing them to provide greater force in the water. Gills are composed of filaments which create greater surface area for more gas exchange (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gill).

Regulation: Fish have a central nervous system with a brain and spinal cord, which coordinate movement and most other processes. Fish are also characterized by distinct cephalization and live in oceans, though specific conditions can vary widely (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vertebrate).

Interdependence in Nature: NA

Science, Technology, and Society: Perch are extremely popular for fishing and consist of a large part of the world's economy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perch).

Sketch: *no sketch uploaded at this time*



2. Amphibia

Name: frog

Evolution: Phylum: Chordata, Class: Amphibian, Order: Anura

Energy Transfer: frogs mainly swollow their food whole, which is varied among species. some of these food sources are small bugs or flys. the digestive system begins with the mouth which has small ridgid teeth. these are not ment to harm or chew the prey but instead to keep the food in their mouth while trying to swallow whole their prey. their long sticky tounge also help catch the frogs prey. they food passes throught the esophogus into the stomach, throught the small and big intestins, then the waste is sent through the cloacal vent. the cloaca vent excretes both urine and feces.

Continuity and Change: the reproduction begins with a mating call that atracts famales of a certain species to the calling male. fertilization is external, the eggs and sperm meet outside the body, the female releases the millions of eggs and the male imediatly puts his sperm on them which creates a protective layer around them. separate sexes are promonent in frogs.

Relationship of Structure to Function: frogs have a stage to their development that are unique. they first are at a tadpole stage. this then developes into the frog later in its life cycle.

Regulation: the mobility of frogs consists of swimming, jumping and crawling. jumping is their best and most efficient mode of movement. frogs must stay in a very wet environment because their skin absorbs and excretes water through pores in the skin. without water around them periodically the frog will lose water through evaporation and die. this water they live in should be luke warm, not too cold or hot.

Interdependence in Nature: N/A

Science, Technology, and Society: fogs are often used in the learning field of disection. students often use these animals to disect and learn about the body structure. the poison found in certain species was once used to help natives in the area. they would take the poisin and put it on the end of their darts or arrows so the victim would feel the pain of the poisin.

Work Cited: http://www.webspawner.com/users/petcentralamphibians/

Sketch: *no sketch uploaded at this time*
frog.jpg
no picture for frog was uploaded so i put this one up for a back up incase it never came up.