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Area IC - Molecules and Cells: Cellular Energetics (8%)

Chapter 7: Photosynthesis (Main ideas from Biology, 9th Edition, by Sylvia S. Mader)

7.1 Photosynthetic Organisms
  • Photosynthesis, which occurs in chloroplasts, is critically important because photosynthetic organisms are able to use solar energy to produce carbohydrate, an organic nutrient. Almost all organisms depend either directly or indirectly on these organic nutrients to sustain themselves. (Page 117)
7.2 Plants as Solar Energy Converters
  • During the light reactions:
    • solar energy → chemical energy
        • (ATP, NADPH) (Page 119)
  • During the Calvin cycle reactions:
    • chemical energy → chemical energy
    • (ATP, NADPH) (carbohydrate) (Page 119)
7.3 Light Reactions
  • Results of noncyclic electron flow in the thylakoid membrane: water is oxidized (split), yielding H+, e-, and O2, which is released. Also, ATP is produced; and NADP+ becomes NADPH. In the stroma, ATP and NADPH reduce CO2 to CH2O, a carbohydrate. (Page 121)
  • The cyclic electron pathway, from PS I back to PS I, has only one effect: production of ATP. (Page 121)
  • Chemiosmosis is the production of ATP due to an H+ gradient. (Page 122)
7.4 Calvin Cycle Reactions
  • The carbohydrate produced by the Calvin cycle is the ultimate nutrient source for most living things on Earth. (Page 125)
7.5 Other Types of Photosynthesis
  • In C3 plants, the Calvin cycle fixes carbon dioxide (CO2) directly, and the first detectable molecule following fixation is 3PG, a C3 molecule. C4 plants fix CO2 by forming a C4 molecule prior to the involvement of the Calvin cycle. CAM plants open their stomata at night and also fix CO2 by forming a C4 molecule. (Page 127)


Chapter 7 Animations
Click the links to see the animations full size.
Cyclic and Noncyclic Photophosphorylation

How the Calvin Cycle Works

Chapter 8: Cellular Respiration (Main ideas from Biology, 9th Edition, by Sylvia S. Mader)

8.1 Cellular Respiration
  • NAD+ and FAD are two coenzymes of oxidation-reduction that are active during cellular respiration. (Page 132)
  • Cellular respiration involves the oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide and water. As glucose breaks down, energy is made available for ATP synthesis. A total of 36 or 38 ATP molecules are produced per glucose molecule in cellular respiration (2 from glycolysis, 2 from the citric acid cycle, and 32 or 34 from the electron transport chain). (Page 133)
8.2 Outside the Mitochondria: Glycolysis
8.3 Inside the Mitochondria
  • Mitochondria synthesize ATP by chemiosmosis. ATP production is dependent on an H+ gradient established by the pumping of H+ into the intermembrane space. (Page 139)
8.4 Fermentation
8.5 Metabolic Pool
  • All the reactions involved in cellular respiration are part of a metabolic pool, and their substrates can be used for catabolism or for anabolism. (Page 144)


Chapter 8 Animations
Click the links to see the animations full size.
How Glycolysis Works

How the Krebs Cycle Works

How the NAD+ Works

Electron Transport System and ATP Synthesis

Electron Transport System and Formation of ATP